Pork is by far the most versatile of meats. It has more variety than any other animal can offer. There are a few things that make pork a viable candidate for charcuterie and curing. Mainly, the fact that pigs are really efficient at turning feed into meat and that pork muscle does a really good job at neither releasing water too quickly nor retaining it too long. Also, pork has a natural sweetness to it that beef and chicken do not.
That sweetness tends to compliment or counterpoise the salty, briny things that are done to pork on its way to becoming ham, bacon, sausage and others. Pork also has sweeter fat that takes to salt and cure better. Beef suet kind of tastes like different after you brine it which is why the majority of beef-based charcuterie excludes fat and focuses on muscle and connective tissue.
Curing meats is a way to preserve the meat after slaughtering the animal. With chicken, there's no need, you would eat the whole chicken soon after slaughter. Curing is mainly for larger animals. As for Beef, there are several cured products, like corned beef, pastrami, and beef jerky. In addition, there are many smoked products too. Chickens are so small that there would be no historical need to cure. Cows are so big that raising, slaughtering, and curing them would be out of reach for a small farm for home use and they would be used for dairy or perhaps fresh meat.
Pork spoils faster than beef. Beef also takes a lot more money per pound of marketable product than pork. This has left beef as a higher-class product in our culinary development, while we do cure some of the less sought after cuts of beef on occasion, our obsession with the burger leaves us with quicker and more cost effective ways to eliminate the leftover bits of cow than curing. Even deli meats like roast beef, turkey or chicken often have been brined to help with preservation and flavour, and would qualify as being cured.
Chicken simply is chicken, it's the blandest most cost-effective meat protein there is. Probably the biggest reason it's so popular is the cost. The overall cost to buy the meat is what drives the use of certain parts. What they use in charcuterie is trimmings and parts of the pork that otherwise don't sell. Chicken per pound is more expensive and there really isn't anything left that isn't used in one way or another. With beef, you would need to add fat and it's just not something commonly available to purchase.
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