A lot of people have the misconception about freezing food kills all the bacteria that cause food poisoning. Unfortunately, that is not the case. It is safe to eat however the repeated expansion and constriction of the cell structure from being frozen will degrade the quality of the food. Another reason is that freezing hits 'pause' on the expiration processes, rather than resetting them to zero. Meaning, if you defrost a chicken breast for example, and leave it out for half a day before deciding you don't need it and throw it back in the freezer, that half a day of being left out is still there.
Let's say that chicken breast can be left out for a total of one day and still be edible, but any more than that will cause it to become dangerous to eat. Imagine the expiration dates were nice and simple and straightforward for the sake of the example. Let's say you decide to put the chicken out to defrost over night for lunch tomorrow, which normally goes just fine. But what happens is that the chicken which was previously left out for a half day is now left out overnight, doing that, it just hit its expiration date.
Aside from that, another main reason is the water. Cells are primarily made up of water. All of that water and the other cell structures are held within cell walls. Think of all cells like water balloons, water is unique that when it freezes, it expands. Additionally, it also freezes into sharp, jagged crystals. So when you freeze something, the water inside the cells first starts making jagged little crystals, and those crystals expands, cutting and bursting as they go. You will end up having mushy food because all of its cell walls have been ruptured.
Technically, you can defrost and refreeze the food if you want, but it adds some pretty serious additional risks, especially with high risk foods. It's really hard to keep track in your head how long everything has been on a 'defrosted' time. Freezing does not stop bacterial development, it just slows it considerably. A recurring freeze-thaw cycle creates a lot of opportunity for bacterial growth to hasten, then slow again. It dramatically slows that process of spoilage and bacterial growth, assuming the food is kept within a certain temperature range.
Thawing the food is moving it between temperatures, often over a prolonged period so it is hard to track. As different parts of the food thaw at different rates, different parts of the food will be growing bacteria at different rates. Bacterial growth depends on time and temperature. The safest way to defrost is in the fridge. Even so, it's easy to lose track of how long food has been in the fridge, so a few days before freezing and a few days after freezing can end up being 1 week, plus the opportunity for bacteria to grow.
Freeze the food as soon as possible after buying. If you need smaller portions, split first into multiple bags. If you only thaw once and have done it in a sensible way, you don't need to think too hard about how long different parts of the food have been in which temperature range because it's not significant. However, doing it multiple times would be difficult to know where your food is in that process of spoilage and bacterial growth. In short, it could lead to food poisoning because it makes it very difficult to track how long your food has been in a temperature range that would cause spoilage and bacterial growth.
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